Drago Kos (an anti-corruption expert and former referee) states that
you'll never notice that an experienced football referee has thrown a
match unless you're also an expert referee. In other words, an expert
referee who is fixing a match won't give a blatantly false penalty, he
or she will find more subtle ways to influence the game.
According to rough estimates, legal sports betting is a $400 billion
industry, Abbott says. Illegal sports betting is a $200 billion
business and 92% of all bets placed on sport are placed on football.
With figures like that, it's no wonder that the fixing of football
matches is a huge growth area for organized crime!
If owning a football club in Bulgaria is a risky business, in Romania
it's a short way to becoming a famous politician, a member of the
Japan is doing a particularly good job at clamping down on match
fixing in football, Drago Kos says. Most countries are not, he adds.
Given the strength of the Yakuza organized crime group in Japan, Kos'
statement might surprise some.
First workshop of the morning here at the Ulysses Guimaraes Convention
Center is called 'Media as Agents of Change: Exposing Corruption,
Galina Sidorova, chair of the Foundation for Investigative Journalism
Anthony Mills, deputy director of the International Press Institute.
Giannina Segnini, editor, investigative unit, La Nacion, Costa Rica
Gerardo Reyes, director, investigative unit, Univision Network, USA
62 journalists were killed last year and 95 have been killed so far
this year, the workshop hears.
Segnini discusses how her paper (Costa Rica's La Nacion) created
public databases which anyone could access.
They created a database of all the mayor candidates in the upcoming
regional elections. They created a second database of all people
convicted of a crime in Costa Rica. And they created a third that
listed all Costa Ricans who are banned from running for public office.
Using these databases, La Nacion found five mayoral candidates who had
been convicted for crimes including robbery and fraud.
Segnini gives another example of the utility of databases:
Using public databases, La Nacion was able to find information on all
the properties owned by Costa Rican ministers, their spouses and their
Then, using land records, La Nacion was able to find the value of
Ministers in Costa Rica are required to declare the properties that
they own (and their value) so La Nacion was able to cross reference
their two databases against what the ministers had publicly declared.
In this way, La Nacion was able to expose the fact that some ministers
were evading enormous amounts of tax. The story led to the resignation
of Costa Rica's finance minister.
Costa Rica doesn't have a 'right to information' law; La Nacion
compiles their databases from public records and sometimes from taking
the government to court in order to force it to reveal certain
A UNDP study on Grassroots Women's Perspectives on Corruption released at a workshop here found that corruption affects a wider spectrum of women's lives than commonly recognised --39 pct of women were asked to pay bribes for basic services (water, electricity, healthcare); 21 pct to get jobs and in business; 16 pct for documents such as a birth certificate; 12 pct by law enforcement and 10 pct for housing, land and property.
Women are more deeply affected if they have no money to pay the bribes and must rely on men who control the financial resources of the household and hold the power, said Francis Birungi from Uganda Community Based Association for Child Welfare.
Women then are forced to pay with their bodies, through physical and sexual abuse she said.
The study found that 4 pct of women considered sexual exploitation a form of corruption.
Among the solutions proposed in the UNDP study was that women leaders are linked to grassroots groups, which gives women on the ground more confidence to stand up against corruption and leaders the information they need to create change.
"It is not enough to have women in leadership positions and then just better governance will happen," said Priya Pillai from Best Practices Foundation, who presented the UNDP report, which suffered 471 people, mostly women, in Africa, Latin America and South Asia.
"It is very important that women in government are linked to mobilized constituencies," she said.
Frank Vogl of TI asks the panel why the finance and banking
correspondents of major media organizations don't report on
corruption? He says that he meets journalists all the time to discuss
the Eurozone/financial crisis but none of them ever ask about
Some people and some media outlets simply aren't interested in the
topic of corruption, Segnini says. Sometimes, a journalist's editor
doesn't think that reporting on corruption is worth the effort. In
that case, "You need to treat your editors like heroin addicts,"
The first time you write about corruption, Segnini says, you need to
work very hard and often do all of the investigatory work in your own
time. Then, when the report is finished, you give it to your editor
"for free". Once the editor has had his or her first taste of a well
reported corruption story, the impact and publicity of that story will
make them want to come back for more, Segnini says.
Sidorova says that she thinks it's more important that the newspaper
reports the story rather than which correspondent wrote it.
Closing plenary begins, Defining Our Future - Shaping the Global Governance Agenda. Its focus is actions points -- how to end impunity for corrupt activities; how to increase government accountability, and the role of the media.